PMS Causes, Symptoms & Treatment | How Long Does PMS Last

PMS Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

How Long Does It Last

how long does pms last

PMS Or Premenstrual Syndrome Causes

In terms of etiology, there are certain electrolyte imbalances that occur like decreased glucose or decreased magnesium and even decreased calcium levels causes PMS Or Premenstrual Syndrome..

But for sure there are endocrine factors that are very commonly associated such as increased prolactin level, fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone and this is where major part of the treatment is targeted towards.

Also other hormones such as increased aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone can result in fluid retention and decreased serotonin can result in depression.

Among other factors unbalanced diet, genetics, chemical and psychological changes and stress can contribute to the problem by worsening the symptoms or PMS causes.

How Long Does PMS Last

Although there is no specific answer to how long does PMS last, but researches suggest that it starts about five to eleven days before menses and subsides once it begins.

It varies from woman to woman since it lasts longer for some and ends in a sort span of 2-3 days for some. Typically symptoms of Premenstrual symptoms start after ovulation which is the midpoint of the monthly menstrual cycle.

PMS Symptoms But No Period

Once in a while when your body goes through hormonal imbalances that are related to premenstrual syndrome, but in case your body did not release an egg that month then you won’t get your period, which means that you would face PMS symptoms but no period.

This condition is known as anovulation ( no ovulation). 10-18% of all menstrual cycles are anovulatory.

Along with these symptoms of early pregnancy like fatigue, mood swings, cramping and breast tenderness are the same as one experiences month to month before menses and this might also result in absent period.

Also ovary cysts, stress and abnormal thyroid conditions might also result into absence of period.

PMS Symptoms

Approximately 7-10 days before menses, 80% of menstruating women suggest that they face  one or two of the PMS symptoms but it does not affect their daily routines substantially, opposite to which 32% say that it becomes difficult for them to perform to the best of their abilities because of any of the following PMS symptoms before period:-


  1. Anger and irritability
  2. Anxiety
  3. Depression
  4. Agitation
  5. Depression
  6. Tension
  7. Over sensitivity
  8. Nausea
  9. Crying
  10. Exaggerated mood swings
  11. Emotional outbursts
  12. Sadness


  1. Abdominal bloating
  2. Abdominal pain
  3. Sore breasts
  4. Breast tenderness
  5. Acne
  6. Food cravings
  7. Constipation
  8. Diarrhoea
  9. Headaches
  10. Disturbed sleeping patterns
  11. Weight gain
  12. Fluid retention

Severe PMS Symptoms

Severe PMS symptoms or Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder is a rare disorder which affects 3-8% of women involves a very depressed mood to the point where the woman is tearful and even sometimes suicidal and it is in fact very distressing and disabling with regard a day to day functionality.

Severe PMS symptoms or PMDD may include:-

  1. Depression
  2. Panic attacks
  3. Thoughts of suicide
  4. Bloating
  5. Cramping
  6. Crying spells
  7. Insomnia
  8. Anxiety attacks
  9. Extreme mood swings
  10. Low concentration levels and
  11. lack of interest in daily activities
  12. Hot flashes
  13. Heart palpitations (sensation of irregular or rapid heartbeats)
  14. Gastrointestinal (stomach, bowel) upset
  15. Increased Appetite

Symptoms of PMDD may occur due to low estrogen and progesterone levels. Also it may be linked with lack of serotonin levels that result in depression.

What Causes PMS Symptoms

Although there are no specific causes for PMS or PMDD, it is observed that the interaction of estrogen and progesterone with neurotransmitters i.e chemicals which carry messages to the brain, cause PMS symptoms.

Thus there is no specific answer to what causes PMS symptoms typically but estimation that it relates to hormonal imbalance.

PMS Symptoms Before Period

As stated above PMS symptoms begin around a week before the menstruation cycle is due to begin and subsides with the beginning of menses.

In case any of the symptoms is experienced by one about for a week before periods then it might be related to PMS else not.

Before any self-made analysis it is better to consult a doctor or therapist since PMS symptoms before period like nausea, morning sickness can be easily confused with other health conditions or symptoms of early pregnancy.

Researches suggest that the answer to how long does PMS last varies from woman to woman and so does the duration of it symptoms.

Anger During Period

Premenstrual Syndrome can usually result in emotional outbursts and crying spells as a result of agitation, irritability, anger and anxiety.

Anger during period is a common phenomenon due to imbalance of estrogen and reduced levels of serotonin. The emotional response of a woman is influenced by the way her brain responses to such fluctuations in hormones.

Mood swings occur from about 14-28 days before menses and subside as bleeding begins.

PMS Treatment

PMS treatment has different approaches, the most general of all being a well managed lifestyle including exercise routines, emotional support, and decreased caffeine before menses, prevention of smoking, and healthy eating habits.

Also calcium and magnesium supplements can help to set the hormonal imbalances back to normal.

Natural remedies like the fruit of chaste berry tree, scientifically known as Vitex agnus castus has been observed to be a potential therapy for PMS.

Evening primrose oil and gingko biloba are also known to reduce effects of PMS.

Medications might be taken include diuretics, analgesics, oral contraceptives and antidepressants.

Diuretics eliminate excess fluid one of the most commonly suggested being Spironolactone (aldactone).

Analgesics are painkillers for suppressing cramping and headache.

Oral Contraceptives are known to relieve ovarian hormonal fluctuations and help reduce effects of PMS.

Antidepressants such as Fluoxetine and paroxetine help increase serotonin and fight depression and anxiety.

One must not take any medication without a prescription since PMS varies from woman to woman in intensity and so does its treatment.

Hence, such remedies can offer relief in PMS symptoms before period.

Evening Primrose Oil PMS Mood Swings

The evening primrose plant is one of the richest sources of omega 6 fatty acid called gamma linolenic acid.

Its oil can help in regulation of hormonal fluctuations thus offering relief in symptoms of PMS and PMDD especially mood swings, breast tenderness and cramping.

It is also known as ‘king cure-all’ because of its healing capabilities. Hence, Evening primrose oil reduces PMS mood swings.

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