What Is Placenta? Its Functions And Development

What Is Placenta?placental development and functions

A flattened circular organ in the uterus of pregnant mammals is called Placenta. The main Placenta function is to nourishes and maintains the fetus through the umbilical cord that links placenta to the fetus.

Through umbilical cord, placenta provides oxygen and other nutrients to the fetus and removes waste products.

The Six Days Tour of Placenta


DAY1: When an egg is fertilized by a sperm cell in the Fallopian tube a two cell structured is formed that is called Zygote.

DAY2: Placental development automatically begins with a process of internal cellular division that produces a hollow ball of cells known as a Morula.

DAY3: This morula moves for implantation from the place of fertilization through the Fallopian tube to the uterus. This implantation normally takes three days.

DAY4: In the process of placental development, Morula in the uterus begins to fill with fluid and known as a blastocyst or an embryo that consisting of approximately 200 cells.

DAY5: In starting days, the cells begin to multiply quickly and the fluid cavity enlarges. Now the blastocyst moves to an optimal place in the uterus and attached to the lining of the uterus either on the stomach side (anterior position) or on the back side (posterior position).

DAY6: This process takes approximately six days from fertilization. Further, this uterus lining provides the nutrients to the fetus in the form of glycogen.


The placenta plays a vital role in all trimesters of pregnancy and ensures that your baby is delivered safely. It performs many functions such as:

  1. The main placenta function is to provide adequate nutrition to your baby. Your blood is passed through the placenta to reach the umbilical cord (that connects you with your baby) before reaches your baby.
  2. Placenta also functions as a kidney, it filters the blood to eliminate the harmful substances that can be injurious to your baby’s health.
  3. Placenta also allows the transmission of oxygen to your baby. Your babies bring back his bio waste through the placenta, which is later expelled from your body through the urine.
  4. One of the essential function of Placenta is work as a filter and separate your blood from your baby because the blood group may not be same as the mother.  Thus it saves your baby from probable infections also.
  5. It also provides different kinds of hormones which helps to maintain the glucose level in your blood that further circulates to your baby.
  6. The most prominent function of the placenta is it passes the oxygen inhaled by you into the circulation system of your baby, by passing it through the umbilical cord.
  7. The most important function plays by placenta as it prevents the chances of your baby from inhaling the amniotic fluids, which can be dangerous.
  8. The placenta secretes female hormones like progesterone and estrogen. The secretion of these hormones stops the probable contractions of the uterus and which may harm the baby.
  9. It also helps to prepare the maternal tissues and the uterus to make easy baby’s delivery.
  10. During the stages of pregnancy, placenta moves simultaneously your womb grows and expands. It stays low in the early stages of pregnancy and moves to the top of the womb at later stages to keep the cervix open for delivery.

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