DLC Test Or Differential Leukocytes Count | An Overview

DLC TEST or DIFFERENTIAL LEUKOCYTES COUNT

DLC Test Or Differential Leukocytes Count

DLC-Blood Test:

Similiar to TLC Test, DLC Test is also a blood test to measure the percentage of different type of WBC (White Blood Cells). It has been classified into 5 parts. Please see below for normal range of all 5 categorized DLC:

 

AGE Neutrophils Lymphocytes Monocytes Eosinophils Basophils
Adults > 18 years  44-68 % 25-44% 0-7% 0-4 % 0-2%
BIRTH 51-71% 21-41%  2-10 % 0-4 % 0-2%
12 HRS 58-78% 16-32% 1-9 % 0-4 % 0-2%
24 HRS 51-71% 21-41% 2-10 % 0-4 % 0-2%
2-7 DAYS 35-55% 31-51%  3-15 % 0-8 % 0-2%
8-14 DAYS 30-50% 38-58%  3-15 % 0-7 % 0-2%
15-30 DAYS 25-45% 46-66%  1-13 % 0-7 % 0-2%
1-6 MONTH 22-45% 46-71% 1-13 % 0-7 % 0-2%
0.5-1 YRS 21-42% 51-71%  1-9 % 0-7 % 0-2%
1-2 YRS 21-43% 49-71%  1-9 % 0-7 % 0-2%
2-4 YRS 23-52% 40-69%  1-9 % 0-7 % 0-2%
4-6 YRS 32-61% 32-60%  1-9 % 0-7 % 0-2%
6-8 YRS 41-63% 29-52%  0-9 % 0-7 % 0-2%
8-10 YRS 43-64% 28-49%  0-8 % 0-4% 0-2%
10-16 YRS 44-67% 25-48%  0-9 %  0-7 % 0-2%
16-18 YRS 44-68% 25-48%  0-9 %  0-7 % 0-2%

NOTE: Normal range values slightly differ among different pathology labs.

WHAT ABNORMAL VALUE OF DLC INDICATES?

Differential Leukocytes Count

It is important to realize that an abnormal increase in one type of white blood cell can cause a decrease in the percentage of other types of white blood cells.

1.Neutrophils:

These are most common WBC that fight infections. Neutrophils normal range for adults is between 44% and 68%. Generally, below value means a decrease in WBC. If Neutrophils are high, it indicates bacterial or fungal infection.

Physical/ mental stress and even smoking can also increase the neutrophil count in DLC test. In that case, the doctor might suggest you for skin or culture test or test for other bacterial infections depends on the symptoms of the disease you have.

What Does It Mean When Your Neutrophils Are High?

If neutrophils are high in a blood sample, it indicates that one of the following infection/ diseases may diagnose:

Eclampsia seizures or coma in a pregnant woman
Acute infection Infection for a certain(short) time period
Gout type of arthritis due to uric acid build up in the blood
Myelocytic leukaemia a bone marrow cancer
Rheumatoid arthritis an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints
Rheumatic fever disease due to an infection with group A streptococcus bacteria
Thyroiditis a thyroid disease
Trauma An emergency condition

Neutrophils Low Indicates:

If neutrophils low in the blood sample, It may be due to:

Aplastic anaemia Aplastic anemia is a rare but serious blood disorder. The patient’s bone marrow doesn’t make enough new blood cells
Chemotherapy A medicinal treatment to treat cancer by damaging cancer cell
Influenza (flu) A type of viral infection
Radiation therapy or exposure A therapy to treat cancer that uses high energy of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors
Viral infection Infection due to virus
Bacterial infection Widespread severe infection caused by bacteria

2. Lymphocytes:

Neutrophils normal range

Lymphocytes are responsible for immune response & regulation of antibody production. Lymphocytes range varies from 25% to 44% and categorized into two parts: B cells and T cells:

  1. The B cells produce antibodies that are used to attack invading bacteria, viruses, and parasites.
  2. The T cells destroy the body’s own cells that have themselves been taken over by viruses or become cancerous.
Lymphocytes high:

Lymphocytes high percentage value in DLC test indicates some inflammatory disease is developing in the body. It may be due to the following reason:

Chronic bacterial infection Infection due to bacteria for prolonged period
Infectious hepatitis  liver swelling and inflammation from bacteria or viruses
Infectious mononucleosis viral infection that causes fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands
Lymphocytic leukemia a type of blood cancer
Multiple myelomas a type of blood cancer
Viral infection such as mumps or measles
Lymphocytes Low:

Lymphocytes low percentage value usually indicates that a viral infection is developing in the body. The following reason may be the reason behind:

 Chemotherapy A medicinal treatment to treat cancer by damaging cancer cell

HIV/AIDS infection

A virus infection that weakens your body’s immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection.

Leukaemia

is cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow where blood cells are made
 Radiation therapy or exposure A therapy to treat cancer that uses high energy of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors

Sepsis

severe, inflammatory response to bacteria or other germs

Steroid use

Anabolic steroid abuse may incredibly damaging to the body and lowers lymphocytes in the blood.

3. Monocytes:

monocytes high

Cells that sometimes ingest/digest foreign particles like bacteria, carbon, dust, etc. Monocytes range for an adult is 0 – 7%. Monocytes high value in DLC test indicates severe stress, chronic infection or abscess.

Another cause is long-term use of steroids or long-term exposure to toxic chemicals such as dyes or insecticides.

Monocytes High percentage value in DLC blood test may indicate the following infection/ disease:

Chronic inflammatory disease A disease cause inflammation for prolonged period
Leukaemia is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow where blood cells are made
Parasitic infection A parasitic disease, also known as parasitosis, is an infectious disease caused or transmitted by a parasite
Tuberculosis, or TB  bacterial infection that involves the lungs
Viral infection e.g. infectious mononucleosis, mumps, measles
 Monocytes Low:

Monocytes low percentage value in the blood caused by anything that decreases in white blood cell counts, such as a bloodstream infection, chemotherapy, or a bone marrow disorder.

4. Eosinophils:

Eosinophils in DLC test is also a type of WBC that helps to increase body’s response to allergic reactions, asthma, and infection with parasites. Eosinophil normal value is 0 – 4% for adults.

Eosinophils are made in the body’s bone marrow, and then merge into the blood and circulate around the body.  Eosinophils high value indicates allergic infection, chronic fungal infection or worm infestation.

Besides this the following disease/ Infection may trigger eosinophils high percentage of blood:

Addison disease  adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones
Allergic reaction

 

An adverse reaction by different kind of allergens
Cancer a group of diseases in which cells take enormous growth
Chronic myelogenous leukemia cancer of the white blood cells
Collagen vascular disease  These are the disorders of arthritis and inflammation of arteries in the tissues
Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) is a disease characterized by a persistently elevated eosinophil count in the blood for at least six months without any recognizable cause
Eosinophils Low Value:

Eosinophil low percentage value is usually not a cause for concern and is actually quite common. Eosinophils low level may diagnose administration of steroids.

5. Basophils:

basophils high

Basophils in DLC test Controls inflammation & damage to the body.

Basophils high:

Basophils high Value indicates some blood diseases and poisoning. Basophils high percentage value may be due to:

After splenectomy Removal of spleen
Allergic reaction An adverse reaction by different kind of allergens
Chronic myelogenous leukemia  a type of bone marrow cancer
Collagen vascular disease These are the disorders of arthritis and inflammation of arteries in the tissues
Myeloproliferative diseases group of bone marrow diseases
Chickenpox A highly contagious disease caused by  varicella-zoster virus

Lower Basophils percentage may be due to:

  • Acute infection
  • Cancer
  • Severe injury

 

sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003657.htm

http://www.infolona.com/health_personal_and_emergency_care/blood_test_results_explained/find

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