Blood Glucose Test | Fasting, PostPrandial And Random

What is a Blood Glucose Test?

A blood glucose test means a blood test that measures the amount of glucose in your blood. Glucose, your body’s main source of energy, is a type of simple sugar.

The sugar you eat is converted into carbohydrates and these carbohydrates provide you energy when metabolized.

Generally, the diabetes of which glucose testing is to be checked, are – type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. The condition in which your blood glucose level is rise known as Diabetes.

HIGH GLUCOSE LEVEL IN BLOOD

HIGH GLUCOSE LEVEL IN BLOOD

Insulin is the hormone that controlled the sugar level in your blood. If your body doesn’t make enough insulin or the insulin produced by your body doesn’t work properly, you may become diabetic.

This makes the level of sugar rise in your blood. If this increased levels of glucose in blood left untreated may lead to severe organ damage.

LOW GLUCOSE LEVEL IN BLOOD

If the level of glucose in your blood is too low than normal, the condition is called hypoglycemia.

WHAT IS DIABETES?

TYPE OF DIABETES

TYPE 1 DIABETES

Generally, the children and teenagers whose bodies aren’t able to produce enough insulin, diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic and requires a long-term treatment.

TYPE 2 DIABETES

The adults who overweight or obese are more likely to prone to Type 2, but it may develop in younger people as well.

The reason for Type 2 Diabetes is almost the same as Type 1 – when your body doesn’t make enough insulin or when the insulin produced by your body doesn’t work properly.

Although often it also required a long-term treatment, the impact may be reduced through weight loss and diet control.

Diabetes During Pregnancy

Diabetes During Pregnancy

Most of the women develop Gestational diabetes during their pregnancies. But, it usually goes away after the childbirth.

By getting blood glucose tests you can determine that your condition is being under control or you should consult with your doctor.

CAUSES OF HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS

Other possible causes of high blood glucose levels include:

  • Hyperthyroidism (high thyroid level)
  • kidney problems
  • pancreatitis, (inflammation of the pancreas)
  • pancreatic cancer
  • prediabetes, ( increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes
  • stress to the body from illness, trauma, or surgery
 HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE SYMPTOMS

 HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE SYMPTOMS

The blood glucose test may also be done if you feel the symptoms:

  • An increase in the frequency of urination
  • Recently gained a lot of weight
  • Blurred vision
  • Confusion or a behavioral change
  • Fainting spells
  • Late recovery of wound healing
EFFECT OF HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL

In rare cases, high blood glucose levels can cause kidney failure, acromegaly (an abnormal growth of hands, feet & face – hormonal disorder), or Cushing’s syndrome, which occurs when your body produces too much cortisol.

CAUSES OF LOW BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL

 Low blood glucose level or hypoglycemia is less common and may be caused by:

  • Insulin Overuse
  • Starvation
  • Hypopituitarism (underactive pituitary gland)
  • Hypothyroidism ( underactive thyroid)
  • Addison’s disease, (due to low levels of cortisol)
  • Alcohol abuse
  • liver disease
  • insulinoma (a type of pancreatic tumor)

Fasting Blood Glucose Test

Blood glucose tests are either random (at any time), fasting (empty stomach) or PostPrandial Glucose Test (PP) tests.

For a fasting blood glucose test, you have to be on fast for eight hours before the test, means none to eat and drink except water.

Hence it is better to schedule a fasting blood glucose test in the morning so you don’t have to fast during the day.

Random blood glucose test doesn’t have the condition to have an empty stomach, you may take up anything. Those who have already diabetic also need to monitor the blood sugar test.

Fasting tests are more reliable and help better to diagnose because they provide more accurate results.

Tell your doctor about the prescription medication, OTC drugs, and herbal supplements, so that a correct diagnose made possible before you going to test.

MEDICATION THAT AFFECTS BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL

MEDICATION THAT AFFECTS BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL

Medications that can affect your blood glucose levels include:

  • Acetaminophen(Tylenol)
  • Steroids
  • Corticosteroids
  • Atypical antipsychotics
  • Aspirin
  • Diuretics
  • Birth control pills
  • Hormone therapy
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Lithium
  • Epinephrine(Adrenalin)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
  • Phenytoin
  • Sulfonylurea medications

Excessive stress can also temporarily increase your blood glucose level and is usually due to the below factors:

  • Surgery
  • Trauma
  • Stroke
  • Heart attack

You should tell your doctor if you’ve recently had any of these.

How To Do A Blood Glucose Test?

How To Do A Blood Glucose Test

BLOOD SUGAR TEST PROCEDURE

A blood sugar test requires just a drop of the blood sample. For testing, either you can opt a pathology lab or can buy a small glucometer machine along with their strips for the test at home by itself.

In both the cases, the sample blood can most likely be drawn with a very simple prick to a finger. Follow the instructions given on the glucometer machine and strip’s manual, do the test and note down the results.

Read the manual of glucometer and testing strips carefully and follow the instructions. Most testing strips allow inserting into the machine after collecting the drop on it as it is more convenient.

  • Wash and dry your hands before testing.
  • Cleanse the testing area (fingertip) with an alcohol swab.
  • Prick on the side of the finger, keep 6-7 mm away from nail tip and use different fingers for each test.
  • Keep the hand/ finger perpendicular to your body (at chest level), before lancing.
  • Squeeze the finger, and collect a drop of blood onto the test strip.
  • Note the blood glucose test reading and record it.

How To Read Blood Glucose Test Results?

NORMAL BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL
FASTING SUGAR VALUE

The results of your test will depend on the type of blood glucose test used.

As according to American Diabetic Association for a fasting test, a normal blood glucose level is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), between 100 and 125 mg/dL is considered as prediabetes and more than 126 mg/dL is diagnosed as diabetes.

PP SUGAR VALUE

NORMAL BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL

The PostPrandial Glucose Test (PP) is a two-hour test that checks your blood glucose levels before and 2 hours after you drink a special sweet drink. It tells the doctor how your body processes glucose.

For Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) or postprandial Glucose Test (PP) normal blood glucose level is less than 140 mg/dL, between 140 and 199 mg/dL is considered as prediabetes and more than 200 mg/dl is diagnosed as diabetes.

RANDOM SUGAR VALUE

Random diabetes is diagnosed at a blood glucose of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl. Actually, its depend upon when you have last eaten. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wik/

Abnormal results

If you had a fasting blood glucose test, the following results are abnormal and indicate you have either prediabetes or diabetes:

  • A blood glucose level of more than 100 mg/dL indicates that you have prediabetes or diabetes.

If you had a random blood glucose test, the following results are abnormal and indicate you may have either prediabetes or diabetes:

  • A blood glucose level of more than 140 mg/dL indicates that you may have prediabetes or diabetes.

If your random blood glucose test results are abnormal, your doctor might suggest you for a fasting blood glucose test to confirm the diagnosis.

If you are diagnosed with prediabetes or diabetes, your doctor might suggest you some medication to control your blood glucose level.

Also, control of diet, regular exercises, morning walk, and normal weight will immensely help you to control your blood glucose level.  

source: https://www.99cure.com/content/,  https://professional.diabetes.org, www.healthline.com/health

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